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    Welcome to SOPH, part of the Faculty of Community Health Science (CHS) at the University of the Western Cape (UWC). This website will introduce you to our vision, our staff and our teaching and research programmes.

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    Popular in South Africa and other African countries for its flexible, modular, part-time design and growing array of distance learning materials.

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    Probably the largest continuing education programmes in Public Health in Africa, which has trained over 12000 participants since 1992.

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    The PGD in Public Health aims to provide graduates with an overview of Public Health, with an emphasis on health sector transformation, district health services, and Primary Health Care: Prioritise health needs at population level; Design, implement and evaluate Public Health programmes.

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    Masters in Public Health (coursework, mini-thesis)

    The Programme is designed for a range of health and welfare professionals and managers from middle to senior level, at district, provincial or national levels, staff of NGO’s and academic research contexts.

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    Masters in Public Health (full thesis)

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    PhD in Public Health

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    Winter School / Summer School

    Exposes health and health-related workers to the latest thinking in Public Health and enables them to exchange ideas on improved planning and implementation of Primary Health Care in the changing environment of the developing world.



29 August 2016

As pointed out in the policy paper, Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) are a global concern, as is the obesity epidemic. This is also the case in South Africa, for which NCDs impose a large and continuously growing burden on the health, economy, and development of the country, currently contributing to a staggering 43% of recorded deaths. Rates of overweight and obesity in the country have been experiencing a sharp rise over recent years1,2,3,4. Currently, more than 45% of men and women above the age of 35 are either overweight or obese5.

While NCDs have historically affected the more affluent population, these conditions are now affecting other population groups as well. It is believed that in the coming decades, NCDs will further exacerbate wide inequalities in longevity and quality of life among all in South Africa6. Additionally, the chronic nature of NCDs demands long-term care and imposes a significant burden on an overstretched health system already having to cope with the HIV/AIDS epidemic, a high burden of TB, maternal and child mortality, and high levels of violence and injuries.

One of the leading behavioural risk factors for NCDs is an unhealthy diet that includes high levels of sugar consumption, among other things7. In fact, the continuing rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity in an increasing number of low- and middle-income countries has been associated with a dramatic change in diet. Poor diet now generates more disease than physical inactivity, alcohol and smoking combined8. This change, dubbed the ‘nutrition transition’, is characterised by a shift from traditional diets towards more energy-dense, processed foods, and more foods of animal origin and more added sugar, salt and fat91011. This new diet, commonly known as the ‘western’ diet is primarily made up of cheap, highly palatable, heavily promoted, energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods12. The transition is evident in South Africa, where a steady increase in the per capita food supply of sugar, fat, protein, salt, and total calories has been observed13,14,15.

The changes in nutrient intake among South Africans have been associated with changes in population level dietary patterns16. Research increasingly implicates a rapidly changing food environment dominated by processed products (including those high in sugar), and demonstrates that these environments contribute to increasing levels of chronic diseases, over and above individual factors such as knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours17,18,19. Simply put: Unhealthy food environments foster unhealthy diets. This has especially been found to be true for communities predominantly made up of low-income, low socio-economic status residents20,21,22,23, such as many found in South Africa.

International research has shown that environmental and policy interventions may be among the most effective strategies for creating population-wide improvements in consumption habits24. Consensus now exists based on research and practice on core policy actions that can be taken to promote healthy diets25,26. These policy actions include the taxation of unhealthy ‘food’ items, such as sugar-sweetened beverages – for example, Mexico implemented taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages and other so-called junk foods, and many other countries have or are actively pursuing taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to combat both obesity and dental disease25. Early results from the sugar taxation in Mexico indicate that in 2014 the purchase of soda and other taxed drinks had dropped by 10% compared with the previous year, whereas the purchase of bottled water rose by 13%, showing that people were indeed substituting the unhealthy for the healthy27. Sugar taxes have also successfully been implemented in Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland and Norway, and resulted in substantial scientific evidence showing that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduces the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases and that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate28,29.

To this end, we commend the Treasury for its proposed sugar-sweetened beverage tax policy. We believe that it is strong and will improve health in South Africa by reducing sugary drink consumption. We also agree that it is, indeed in line with recommendations and targets made by The Department of Health’s Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013 – 2017, and National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Obesity 2015 – 2020.

However, we would add to the above by recommending the following be considered/incorporated when the final policy is written up and implemented:

1) Existing national efforts addressing diet-related NCDs have to be strengthened, coordinated and sustained in order to combat the current trend and achieve a real reduction in the current NCD-related burden. In order for full health benefits to be achieved, a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages would need to be part of a wider approach to address obesity that includes for example food labelling, advertising regulations, reformulation of foods and drinks by industry and consumer awareness programs as well as possible subsidies on healthy foods. Also, in addition to a sugar tax, it is recommended that the sugar (and corn syrup) content of other consumer items such as processed and packaged food, should be regulated.

2) The revenue from the sugary drink tax should be used to promote health. Part of the tax revenue should be used towards improving the wellbeing and health of all. Currently, the policy document does not describe how the revenue from the sugary drink tax will be used. South Africans need to know how this money will be used to benefit them and their country.

3) A higher sugary drink tax will have an even greater impact on health. The proposed tax level of 0.0229 Rand per gram of sugar is commendable, but a higher level will better enhance the chances of reaching the goals put forth in the DOH’s Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013 – 2017, and National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Obesity 2015 – 2020.

Finally, we would also like to point out, and add our voices to those who refute industry claims that a sugar-sweetened tax would result in job losses. It has been pointed out that these claims rely on a “misunderstanding of economic realities combined with repeated misrepresentations of the available data. In particular, because of the host of substitutes available for sugary drinks, both consumers and producers can adapt to the tax in ways that avoid economic costs while achieving significant health benefits, and would reiterate here findings that refute this claim. In any case, as noted, as sales of sugary drinks decline, retailers should see higher sales of other untaxed drinks. By extension, they should not see any decline in turnover as long as they can stock appropriate substitutes”30.


1 Armstrong ME, Lambert MI, Lambert EV. Secular trends in the prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity among South African children (1994–2004). Eur J Clin Nutr 2011;65(7):835–40. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.46.j

2 Department of Health, Medical Research Council and OrcMacro. South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Pretoria: Department of Health; 2007

3 Reddy SP, James S, Sewpaul R, Koopman F, Funani NI, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila – The South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2008. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2010.

4 Kruger HS, Steyn NP, Swart EC, Maunder EMW, Nel JH, et al. Overweight among children decreased, but obesity prevalence remained high among women in South Africa, 1999–2005. Public Health Nutr. 2011;18:1–6. doi:10.1017/S136898001100262X. 

5 Bradshaw D, Steyn K, Levitt N, Nojilana B. Non-communicable Diseases – A race against time. Parow, South Africa: Medical Research Council; 2010.

6 Puoane TR, Tsolekile LP, Caldbick S, Igumbor EU, Meghnath K, Sanders D. Chronic non-communicable diseases in South Africa: Progress and challenges: Social and environmental determinants of health. In: Padarath A, English R, editors. South African Health Review 2012-13. Durban, South Africa: Health Systems Trust, 2013; p. 115-26.

7 World Health Organization. Global Health Risks. Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. Geneva, Switzerland; 2009.

8 Malhotra A, Noakes T, Phinney S. It is time to bust the myth of physical inactivity and obesity: you cannot outrun a bad diet. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(15):967-8 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094911

9 Popkin BM. The nutrition transition in low-income countries: an emerging crisis. Nutr. Rev. 1994;52(9):285-98

10 Bourne LT, Lambert EV, Steyn K. Where does the black population of South Africa stand on the nutrition transition? Public Health Nutr. 2002;5(1A):157-62.

11 Jinabhai CC, Taylor M, Sullivan KR. Changing patterns of under- and overnutrition in South African children-future risks of non-communicable diseases. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2005;25(1):3-15.

12 Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD et al. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet. 2011;(378):804–14.

13 Kennedy G, Nantel G, Shetty P; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Globalization of food systems in developing countries: impact on food security and nutrition. FAO Food Nutr Pap. 2004;83:1-300.

14 FAOSTAT–South Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2014 May 26; cited 2016 Feb 09] Available from http://faostat.fao.org/site/368/default.aspx#ancor.

15 Charlton KE, Steyn K, Levitt NS, Zulu JV, Jonathan D, et al. Diet and blood pressure in South Africa: intake of foods containing sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in three ethnic groups. Nutrition. 2005;21: 39–50.

16 MacIntyre UE, Kruger HS, Venter CS, Vorster HH. Dietary intakes of an African population in different stages of transition in the North West Province, South Africa: the THUSA study. Nutrition Research. 2002;22:239–56.

17Story M, Kaphingst KM, Robinson-O'Brien R, Glanz K. Creating Healthy Food and Eating Environments: Policy and Environmental Approaches. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:253-72 doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090926.

18 Ledikwe JH, Blanck HM, Kettel Khan L et al. Dietary energy density is associated with energy intake and weight status in US adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:1362–68.

19 Perez-Escamilla R, Obbagy JE, Altman JM et al. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112:671–84. 

20 Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnidge E, Kelly C. The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines. Prev Chron Dis. 2006;3(3):A76. 

21 Kipke MD, Iverson E, Moore D, Booker C, Ruelas V, et al. Food and park environments: neighborhood-level risks for childhood obesity in east Los Angeles. J Adolesc Health. 2007;40(4):325–33 

22 Lewis LB, Sioane D, Nascimento L, Diamant A, Guinyard J, et al. African Americans' access to healthy food options in South Los Angeles restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(4):668–73 

23 Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux A, Poole C. Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22:23–29

24 Morland KB, Evenson KR. Obesity prevalence and the local food environment. Health Place. 2009;15(2):491-495.

25 Roberto CA, Swinburn B, Hawkes C, Huang TTK, Costa SA, Ashe M, et al. Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking. The Lancet. 2015;385(9985):2400-9.

26 Roberto CA, Pomeranz JL. Public Health and Legal Arguments in Favor of a Policy to Cap the Portion Sizes of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(11):2183-90.

27 Colchero MA, Popkin BM, Rivera JA, Ng SW. Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study. Bmj. 2016;6;352:h6704. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h6704.

28 Hu FB. Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Obes Rev. 2013;14(8):606-19. doi:10.1111/obr.12040.

29 Cabrera Escobar MA, Veerman JL, Tollman SM, Bertram MY, Hofman KJ. Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):1-10.

30 Makgetla N. Trade and Industry Policy Strategies (TIPS) Policy Brief: Debates on sugar tax. 2016, August.

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